Additional Info

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Coxe, W., The Russian Discoveries Between Asia and America, Readex Microprint Corp., 1966, copy of Coxe’s document from 1780.

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Derbeneva, O. A., Sukernik, R. I., Volodko, N.V., Hosseini, s. H., Lott, M. T., and Wallace, D. C., “Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 71(2): 2002.

Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Denisove, G., Dambueva, I., Perkova, M., Dorzhu, C., Luzina, F., Lee, H. K., Vanecek, T., Villems, R., and Zakharov, I., “Phylogeographic analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, November 2007.

Dickinson, William R.,  “Geological perspectives on hte Monte Verde archaeological site in Chile and pre-Clovis coastal migration in the Americas.,” Quaternary Research, 76, 201-210, 2011.

Dillehay, T. D., The Settlement of the Americas:  A New Prehistory, Basic Books of the Perseus Books Group, 2000.

Dilley, Lorie M, Dilley, Thomas E., Guidebook to Geology of Anchorage, Alaska, Lorie M. Dilley and Thomas E. Dilley, 2,000.

Dixon, E. J. and G. S. Smith, “Broken canines from Alaskan cave deposits: re-evaluating evidence for domesticated dog and early humans in Alaska.” American Antiquity, 51(2): 1986.

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Elston, Robert G., Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, “Microlithic Technology in Northern Asia:  A Risk-Minimizing Strategy of the Late Paleolithic and Early Holocene,” Archaeological Papers of the American Anghropological Association, 12 (1) 103-116, 2002.

Erlandson, J., Moss, M., Des Lauriers, M., “Life on the edge: early maritime cultures of the Pacific coast of North America, Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2008.

Etler, D., “The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution in Asia,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 1996.

Etler, D., “Homo erectus in East Asia:  Human Ancestor or Evolutionary Dead-End?”  Athena Review, 4(1)  [Cannot locate year.  The author is from Department of Anthropology, Cabrillio college, Aptos, California.]

Etler, D., Crummett, T., Wolpoff, M., “Longgupo:  Early Homo Colonizer or Late Pliocene Lufengpithecus Survivor in South China?” Human Evolution, 16(1-12), 2001.

Farina, R., Vizcaino, S. Iuliis, Megafauna:  Giant Beasts of Pleistocene South America, Indiana University Press, 2013.

Fell, B., America B.C., Artisan Publishers, 2010.

Fiedel, Stuart J., “Older Than We Thought:  Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians,” American Antiquity, 64(1), 1999.

Finlayson, Clive, The HUMANS WHO WENT EXTINCT, Why Neanderthals died out and we survived. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Fitzhugh, W., “Stone Shamans and Flying Deer of Northern Mongolia:  Deer Goddess of Siberia or Chimera of the Steppe?”  Arctic Anthropology, 46(1-2) 2009.

Flam, F.:  “Red hair a part of the Neanderthal genetic profile” The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 26, 2007.

Flannery, T., The Eternal Frontier, Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, 2001.

Forster, P., Harding, R., Torroni, A., and Bandelt, H. J., “Origin and Evolution of Native American mtDNA Variation: A Reappraisal,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 59(4): 1996.

Froehle, A., Churchill, S., “Energetic Competition Between Neandertals and Anatomically Modern Humans,” PaleoAnthropology, 2009.

Froese, T., Woodward, A., Ikegami, T., “Turing instabilities in biology, culture, and consciousness?  On the enactive origins of symbolic mateiral culture,” Adaptive Behavior, 2 (3).

Gilbert, M. T. P., Jenkins, D. L., Götherstrom, A., Naveran, N. Sanchez, J. J., Hofreiter, M., Thomsen, P. F., Binladen, J., Higham, T. F. G., Yohe, R. M., II, Parr, R. Cummings, L. S. Willerslev, E., “DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America,” Science Express, April 2008.

Gilligan, I., “The Prehistoric Development of clothing:  Archaeological Implications of a thermal Model,” Journal of Archaeological Method Theory, 17, 2010.

Gladyshev, S., Olsen, J., Tabarev, A., Kuzmin, Y., “Peleoenvironment.  The Stone Age: Chronology and Periodization of Upper Paleolithic Sites in Mongolia.” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(3), 2010.

Goebel, T., Waters, M., Dikova, M., “The Archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas,” Science, 301(5632), 2003.

Goebel, T., et al, “The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas, Science, 319, 1497, 2008.

Goldberg, E., Chebykin, E., Zhuchenko, N., Vorobyeva, S., Stepanova, O., Khlystov, O., Ivanov, E., Weinberg, E, Gvozdkov, A., “Uranium isotopes as proxies of the Lake Baikal watershed (East Siberia) during the past 150 ka,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 294(1-2) August 2010.

Golubenko, M. V., Stepanov, V. A., Gubina, M. A., Zhadanov, S. I., Ossipova, L. Pl, Damba, L., Voevoda, M. I., Dipierri, J. E., Villems, R., Malhi, R. S., Beringian “Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders,” PLoS ONE 2(9): eB29. doi;10.1371/journal.pone.0000829.

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Grayson, D., Meltzer, D., “A requiem for North American overkill,” Journal of Archaeological Science, 30(5), 2003.

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Hardaker, C., The First American: the Suppressed Story of the People Who Discovered the New World, New Page Books, 2007.

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Henry, A., Brooks, A., Piperno, D., “Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(2), 2010.

Hoffecker, J. F., A Prehistory of the North:  Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2005.

Honeychurch, W., Amartuvshin, C., “Hinterlands, Urban Centers, and Mobile Settings:  The ‘New’ Old World Archaeology from the Eurasian Steppe,” Asian Perspectives, 46(1) 2007.

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Huyghe, P., Columbus Was Last:  From 200,000 B.C. To 1492 A Heretical History of Who Was First, Anomalist Books, 1992.

Igarashi, Y., Zharov, A., “Climate and vegetation change during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in Sakhalin and Hokkaido, northeast Asia,” Quaternary International, xxx (in process), 2011.

Inman, M.:  “Neanderthals Had Same ‘Language Gene’ as Modern Humans,” National Geographic News, October 18, 2007,

Irwin-Williams, Cynthia, “Dilemma Posed by Uranium-Series Dates on Archaeologically Significant Bones from Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 6 (1969) 237-244, North Holland Publishing Comp., Amsterdam.

Jackinsky, M., “Evidence of woolly mammoths on Peninsula grows,” Alaska Daily News, 3/13/2011.

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Jin, J. J. H., Shipman, P., “documenting natural wear on antlers:  A first step in identifying use-wear on purported antler tools,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2) 2010.

Johnson, John F. C., Chugach Legends:  Stories and Photographs of the Chugach Region, Chugach Alaska Corporation, 1984.

Joling, D., “Warming brings unwelcome change to Alaska villages,” Anchorage Daily News, 3/27/ 2011.

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Jones, Anore, Plants That We Eat:  Nauriat Niginaqtuat, University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, 2010.

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Khenzykhenova, F., “Paleoenvironments of Palaeolithic humans in the Baikal region,” Quaternary International,  179(1), 2008.

Khenzykhenova, F., Sato, T., Lipnina, E., Medvedev, G., Kato, H., Kogai, S., Maximenko, K., Novosel’zeva, V., “Upper paleolithic mammal fauna of the Baikal region, east Siberia (new data),” Quaternary International, 231, 2011.

Kienast, F., Schirrmeister, L., Siegert, C., Tarasov, P., “Palaeobotanical evidence for warm summers in the East Siberian Arctic during the last cold stage,”  Quaternary Research, 63(3), 2005.

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Klein, H. S., Schiffner, D. C., “The Current Debate about the Origins of the Paleoindian of America,” Journal of Social History, 37(2), Winter 2003.

Kolomiets, V. L., Gladyshev, S. A., Bezrukova, E. V., Rybin, E. P., Letunova, P. P., Abzaeva, A. A., “Paleoenvironment  The Stone Age:  Environment and human behavior in northern Mongolia during the Upper Pleistocene,” Archaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology of Eurasia, 37(1), 2009.

Komatsu, G., Olsen, J., Ormo, J., Di. Achille, G., Kring, D., Matsui T., “The Tsenkher structure in the Gobi-Altai, Mongolia:  Geomorphological hints of an impact origin,” Geomorphology, 74(1-4), March 2006.

Kornfeld, M., Larson, M. L., “Bonebeds and other myths:  Paleoindian to Archaic transition on North American Great Plains and Rocky Mountains,” Quaternary International, 191(1), 2008.

Krause, J., Orlando, L., Serre, D., Viola, B., Prüfer, K., Richards, M., Hublin, J., Hänni, C., Derevianko, A., Pääbo, S., “Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia,” Nature LETTERS, 449, 2007.

Kunz, Michael, M. Bever, C. Adkins, The Mesa Site:  Paleoindians above the Arctic Circle, U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM-Alaska Open File Report 86, BLM/AK/ST-03/001+8100+020, April 2003.

Kurochkin, E., Kuzmin, Y., Antoshchenko-Olenev, I., Zabelin, V., Krivonogov, S., Nohrina, T., Lbova, L., Burr, G, and Cruz, R., “The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS 14C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study),” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 268(7-8), April 2010

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Lam, Y. M., Brunson, K, Meadow, R., Yuan, J., “Integrating taphonomy into the practice of zooarchaeology in China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Langdon, Steve J., Native People of Alaska:  Traditional Living in a Northern Land, Greatland Graphics, 2008.

Lee, H., “Paleoenvironment: The Stone Age.  Projectile Points and Their Implications,” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(3), 2010.

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Liu, W., Wu, X., Pei, S., Wu, Xiujie, Norton, C. J., “Huanglong Cave:  A Late Pleistocene human fossil site in Hubei Province, China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Lu, X., Xiong, D., Chen, C., “Threatened fishes of the world:  Sinocyclocheilus grahami (Regan 1904) (Cyprinidae),” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 85(2), 2009.

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Mednikova, M., Dobrovolskaya, M., Buzhilova, A., Kandinov, M., “A Fossil Human Humerus from Khvalynsk: Morphology and Taxonomy,” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(1), 2010.

Meltzer, D., First Peoples in a New World:  Colonizing Ice Age America, University of California Press, 2009.

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Mol, D., de Vos, J., van der Plicht, J., “The presence and extinction of Elephas antiquus Falconer and Cautley, 1847, in Europe,” Quaternary International, 169-170, 2007.

Moncel, M., “Oldest human expansions in Eurasia:  Favouring and limiting factors,” Quaternary International, 223-4, 2010.

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Nikolskiy, P. A., Basilyan, A. E., Sulerzhitsky, L. D., and Pitulko, V. V., “Prelude to the extinction:  Revision of the Achchagyl-Allaikha and Berelyokh mass accumulations of mammoth,” Quaternary International, 219(1-2), 2010.

Norton, C. J., “The nature of megafaunal extinctions during the MIS 3-2 transition in Japan,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Norton, C. J., Jin, J. J. H., “Hominin morphological and behavioral variation in eastern Asia and Australasia: current perspectives,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

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Oppenheimer, S., “The great arc of dispersal of modern humans: Africa to Australia,” Quaternary International, 202(1-2), 2009.

Orlova, L. A., Kuzmin, Y. V., Stuart, A. J., Tikhonov, A. N., “Chronology and environment of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) extinction in northern Asia,” The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome 2001.

Osipov, E., Khlystov, O., “Glaciers and meltwater flux to Lake Baikal during the Last Glacial Maximum,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 294(1-2) 2010.

Palombo, M. R., “Quaternary mammal communities at a glance,” Quaternary International, 212(2), 2010.

Park, S., “L’hominidé du Pléistocène supérieur en Corée, L’anthropologie, 110, 2006.

Pei, S., Gao, X., Feng, X., Chen, F., Dennell, R., “Lithic assemblage from the Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site of the early Late Pleistocene in the Three Gorges, China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), January 2010.

Perkins, Sid, “DNA study links indigenous Brazilians to Polynesians,” April 1, 2013, Nature.

Pietrusewsky, M., “A multivariate analysis of measurements recorded in early and more modern crania from East Asia and Southeast Asia,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

Pimenoff, V., Comas, D., Palo, J., Vershubsky, G., Kozlov, A, Sajantila, A., “Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers,” European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 2008.

Pitulko, V., “The Berelekh Quest:  A Review of Forty Years of Research in the Mammoth Graveyard in Northeast Siberia,” Geoarchaeology, 26(1), 2011.

Ponce de León, M., Golovanova, L., Doronichev, V., Romanova, G., Akazaqa, T., Kondo, O., Ishida, H., Zollikofer, C., “Neanderthal brain size at birth provides insights into the evolution of human life history,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(37), Sept 2008.

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WEBSITES:  Note—-If the list in the novel doesn’t correspond with the list here, there are two main reasons why.  (1) New information has been added.  (2) Links no longer go to active sites so they have been eliminated.  I have removed the inactive links from this list but retained them in the book, because they were resources.

Alces   latifrons

America’s Stone Age Explorers  (8/23/2010)

Ancestral Human Skull Found in China (80,000 to 100,000 ya)

Ancient bison bones supports theory about Ice Age seafarers being first in Americas… (9/5/2010)

Archaeobotany of the Central Aleutian  Islands

Archaeology of the Altai Republic… (1/30/2011)

Archaic Human Culture  (9/9/2010)

As Old Clovis Sites, but Not Clovis,  Paisley Caves, Oregon Yields Western Stemmed Points, More Human DNA

The aurochs is about to return to the mountains of central Europe

Back Migration

Bamboo  (9/13/2010)

Berelekh Map  (8/31/2010)

China map  (8/20/2010)

Chukchee Society (4/5/2011)

Chukchi Directions of time and space (4/5/2011)

Chukchi Language (4/5/2011)

Cro-Magnon  (8/12/2010)

Denisova Cave (Siberia)  (8?31/2010)

Did Ancient Volcano Alter Human History

Drum Talk Is the African’s Wireless A. I. Good, Natural History Magazine,

Dover Bronze Age Boat

Earliest Humanlike Footprints Found in Kenya  (9/11/2010)

Face of a Neanderthal woman  (8/23/2010)

Fibrous dysplasia in a 120,000+ year old Neanderthal from Krapina, Croatia (2013)

First Americans  (8/23/2010)

Four-horned Antelope   (9/15/2010)

Geography of China  (9/3/2010)

Gold line fish is critically endangered

Historical earthquakes in China  (9/24/2010)

Historical SuperVolcanoes and Archeology Indicate Nuclear Winter Climate Models Exaggerate Effects  (8/20/2010)

Hominid Tools  (8/23/2010)

Homo erectus  (8/12/2010)

Homo erectus  (8/12/2010)

Homo erectus  (9/5/2010)

Homo erectus Survival  (9/5/2010)

Homo neanderthalensis  (8/12/2010)

How Two Retirees’ Amateur Archaeology Helped Throw Our View of Human History into Turmoil

Humans wore shoes 40,000 years ago, fossil suggests  (8/27/2010)

Hydropotes inermis (Chinese water deer) (9/8/2010)

Ice Age Climate Cycles (1/29/2011)

Ice-Free Corridor Revisited

Images of Neanderthals  (8/23/2010)

Ki’ti’s Story, 75,000 BC  The land where the giants played.

La Ferrassie Neanderthal Reconstruction  (8/23/2010)

Late Pleistocene, now-extinct fauna of the southwest  (8/22/2010)

Maars and Phreatic Eruptions

Meet the Neanderthals  (8/23/2010)

Moose and Giant Moose


Muntjac (barking deer)  (9/8/2010)


Neanderthal culture: Old masters

Neanderthals more intelligent than thought  (9/24/2010)

Neanderthal reconstructions (8/23/2010)

Neanderthal tools

Neanderthal tools    (6/22/2013)

Neanderthal tools    (6/22/2013)   

New Evidence Puts Man in North America 50,000 Years Ago,

Origins of Paleoindians   (8/22/2010)

Pedra Furada, Brazil:  Paleoindiand, Paintings, and Paradoxes, (2012)

Pompeii-Like Excavations Tell Us More About Toba Super-Eruption

Quaternary Period   (8/31/2010)

Red hair a part of Neanderthal genetic profile  (8/26/2010)

Rethining Neanderthals, Joe Alper,, Science and Nature, June 2003

Sacred Bones, Fields of Stones, Dr. Francis Allard Earthwatch Journal, October 2002,

Saniotis A. Henneberg M. 2011. Rehabilitating Neanderthals: anthropological constructions of Neanderthals in the process of ‘othering’. Before Farming: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers 2010/4. Article 3.

Savoonga artist to explore traditional native tattoos, Anchorage Daily News (4/5/2011)

Shamanism in Siberia (4/5/2011)

Shiraoi Ainu Village

Signs of Neanderthals Mating With Humans  (8/26/2010)

Simple techniques for production of dried meat (9/27/2010)

Snout trout is critically endangered

Solutrean  (8/23/2010)

Stone Age Columbus  (8/23/2010)

Stone Age Site Yields Evidence of Advanced Culture  (9/5/2010)

Stone Me!  Spears show early human species was sharper than we thought

Stone Tools Point to Creative Work by Early Humans in Africa

Stone-tipped spear may have much earlier origin

Straight-tusked elephant  (10/3/2010)

Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures  (9/8/2010)

Toothpicks—-Homo erectus used them

Transmitting the Ainu wisdom

Umiaq skin boat

Volcanic Ash  (8/20/2010)

When did humans come to the Americas?

Zhirendong puts the chin in china

Zhoukoudian Relics Museum  hppt: (9/5/2010)

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